How does cyber crime exacerbate the attribution challenge regarding state based cyber threats discussion help

Readings:  Blum, chapters 6-7; Singer, section beginning on p. 85 o Articles: McAfee, A Good Decade for Cybercrime; RAND, Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data (summary); Verizon, 2014 Data 5 Cyber Warfare Syllabus – Mazanec Breach Investigations Report (cyber crime section, beginning on p. 32); Archick, Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention 

 In the discussion board, respond to the following: o How does cyber crime exacerbate the attribution challenge regarding state-based cyber threats? o Will cyber crime only be effectively mitigated through government actions and broad international collaboration among nation states or can corporations and the private sector effectively address the threat?

Books: Blum, epilogue; Valeriano, chapters 4 and 5; Singer, sections beginning on p. 114, 120, 126,  

Articles: Shakarian, Stuxnet: Cyberwar Revolution in Military Affairs; Clapper, Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community (p.1-3); Koblentz, Viral Warfare: The Security Implications of Cyber and Biological Technologies; Rid, Cyber War Will Not Take Place; and RAND, A Cyberworm that Knows no Boundaries (summary) ï‚· Videos: Symantec Stuxnet videos “Stuxnet 0.5 – The Missing Link” and “Stuxnet: How It Infects PLCs”, found here: http://www.symantec.com/tv/products/details.jsp?vid=2180741043001, Stuxnet TED Talk by Ralph Langner, found here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CS01Hmjv1pQ; and Stuxnet video, found here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSMOs7CF1Eo. 

In the discussion board, respond to the following: o How has CNA evolved from the late 20th century to the Estonian conflict and then Stuxnet and how might it further evolve in the future? o Is CNA cyber warfare really a form of war or is it more akin to sabotage or clandestine action? 

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