Please respond to/add/agree/disagree in 50 words or more. 

Erik Erikson proposed the Psychosocial Theory, in which the development throughout a person’s life is a sequence of stages. In every stage each individual has to overcome specific problems, thus gaining confidence in themselves and their intellectual capacity and creating concepts themselves. Having knowledge, what is appropriate at each stage, parents or caregivers can create a nurturing and caring environment which will support children’s development. For example, when a toddler begins their independent existence they want to do things for themselves without help. Parents must not be too strict with rules, and should offer freedom and safety for the toddler to explore the environment around them to help them grow their sense of independence and autonomy.

   Behaviorists state that the environment has an impact on the formation of particular forms of human behaviors. It can be learned from the environment through the process of observational learning called modeling or imitation. Children could learn and copy behaviors, lifestyles, values, and guides for daily living by observing others, seeing them as powerful and attractive. The behavior could have been learned in their family home, from peers, or media, and could have continued to adulthood. Children also learn that particular behaviors produce a particular consequence. The behavioral theory can be very useful in teaching. We can use reinforcement to encourage students to do their best work and to encourage improvement.

   As Vygotsky states, the most effective learning takes place in cooperation with others who guide their experiences and exploration. From parents, caregivers, and teachers, children can gain knowledge, skills, and habits. Vygotsky emphasizes the importance of playing. Playing is a powerful way to support the child’s learning in many areas by exploring their emerging interests and needs. For example, we can use a variety of activities to promote development. Reading books is a great opportunity to enhance children’s language growth through scaffolding and fast-mapping. Reading expands children’s abilities in clear and creative thinking and to communicate their understanding in many ways.


   For me, the moments when my child had tantrums were always a challenge and difficult to handle. Now, I recognize that tantrums in the second year of life are something absolutely normal. This is an important stage in the development of the child. Saying “no”, protesting, fighting for something, to go to the right and not the left, is how children learn independence. They scream and cry because they cannot convey in words what their think. But does that mean that we have to agree to what the child wants? The best control strategy does not include physically punishing the child. Unfortunately, some parents still use spanking as a method to control behaviors. There are many effective ways of managing the child’s behavior.

   There are many components that could affect a child’s development This course gives me a better understanding of the potential benefits from supporting childhood development in many areas. The first few years of life are especially important and depend on the quality of the environment.  Poor nutrition, stimulation and social interaction and emotional neglect can affect the child’s well being. Some children may fail to reach their developmental potential for other reasons. I thought that parental expectations are associated with high academic achievement of a child. Now, I see that too high, unrealistic expectations for a child can be destructive. Also, too low expectations are not good either, children may adopt their parents’ belief that they are not good enough to learn well. 

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