Instructions (100-150 words):
Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion.
Endrin was used as a insecticide and pesticide before the 1980’s. It was found to have human harming effects. Some of these effects include dizziness, headaches, nervousness, confusion, vomiting, and convulsions. Severe poisoning effects the nervous system and can be fatal in minutes (ASTDR, 1996).
What are the steps that could have been taken to prevent the adverse health outcomes from occurring?
Little to nothing could have been done to protect people from endrin effects. The sole reason for that is lack of research and understanding. Once the effects were clearly shown, endrin as banned by the EPA.
What are the changes required in the existing law that could discourage the re-occurrence of such exposures?
Since the use of endrin is banned, and no endrin production occurs in today’s time, the laws should oversee the protection of the public to endrin levels in soil at dump sites.
Apart from law enforcement, what are the other ways to prevent future occurrences of such episodes?
proper protective equipment for anyone who may come into contact with dangerous substances. Water filtration is also a good way of preventing endrin poisoning. The EPA has standards set on all water to have an endrin concentration of less than 0.0002 milligrams per liter (ASTDR, 1996).
Explain the association between exposure to pesticides and health effects.
Pesticides are often toxic to humans. The main use of pesticides is to kill insects and vermin. Because of this, they can be very toxic to other organisms as well. Endrin is known to be resistant to environmental degradation, and therefore stays around for a long time in the environment. Upon coming into contact with people, it caused nervous system damage once ingested, breathed in, or touching the skin. Once inside the body it is stored in adipose tissue and acts as a neurotoxin, impairing the nervous system.
ASTDR, (1996). Public health statement for endrin. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Retrieved from:
Friis, Robert H. (2012). Essentials of Environmental Health, 2nd Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Page 32. Retrieved from